Comparing 8 Top Ab Workout Products: From Slant Boards to Punching Bags

Hello there, fitness enthusiasts! Ever find yourself scrolling through pages of online fitness products, not quite sure which one is perfect for your home gym? The availability of home gym equipment has increased dramatically over the past few years and that puts us all in a bit of a puzzle, right? Well, we’re glad you’ve stopped by, because today, we’ve handpicked some top-notch products, right from versatile abs workout equipment to some very innovative fitness tools.

Now, before we get down to business, let’s take a step back and appreciate how far we have come in this fitness journey. Remember when bulky gym machines were the only options for a good workout? Fast-forward, and we’ve got virtual fitness classes and portable, efficient, and customizable home fitness products right at our fingertips. The beauty of these products is that they not only offer the convenience of working out at home, but also allow for a wide range of exercises targeting different muscle groups. From developing core strength, losing weight, to enhancing flexibility, these fitness tools promise a whole lot of benefits.

In the coming sections, we will be taking a closer look at various products like the Marcy Utility Slant Board, the KESHWELL Ab Machine, the excitingly different Smart Hula Fit Hoop for adults, the Abs Stimulator, and much more. We’ll discuss their features, their unique selling points, and how they stack up against each other. By the end of this, we hope to provide clarity and help you find the perfect one that suits your fitness needs. So, stay tuned, and let’s get fit together!

Marcy Utility Folding Slant Board with Headrest, Adjustable Positions, Black/Red, 29 x 18 x 59 inches

Marcy Utility Slant Board w/ Headrest – Folding Design with Adjustable Positions SB-4606 , Black/red , 29.00 x 18.00 x 59.00 inches

The Marcy Utility Slant Board w/ Headrest – Folding Design with Adjustable Positions SB-4606, is an excellent addition to any home gym. It’s primarily designed for use in abdominal exercises, specifically for those looking to intensify their workout and bring definition to their core.

What makes this utility slant board stand out from other ab workout equipment is its heavy-duty steel tube frame, which offers increased balance and durability. The powder-coated finish not only looks great but is resistant to water and corrosion. We also admire the easy storage option provided by the locking pin, allowing you to conveniently fold and store away the bench post-workout.

While its main utility serves for abdominal workouts, this slant board creates variety due to its 4-angled positions. This feature opens up a myriad of possibilities for fitness routines, making it adaptable for a wide range of exercises. The adjustability further allows for switching between incline or decline positions to work with different muscle groups.

Besides, it’s designed to offer you comfort and support throughout your exercise. The optimized backrest is both longer and wider, padded with deluxe high-density leather upholstery. This board also features four foam padded handles and a padded headrest, enhancing grip and offering head support, respectively.

Quality is one thing you don’t need to worry about when it comes to the Marcy Utility Slant Board SB-4606. Boasting a heavy-duty steel frame, it offers a robust and durable incline/decline platform for your workouts. It’s clear that this board is built to withstand intense exercise and to last long, making it worth the investment.

Like every product, the Marcy Utility Slant Board has its positives and areas where it could improve.

Here they are:

  1. High-quality, durable construction

  2. Versatility: 4-angled adjustable positions

  3. Comfort and support: Foam-padded handles and headrest; longer and wider backrest

  4. Easy to store and compact design

  5. Some users may find it to be on the bulky side, albeit foldable

  6. Best suited for home workouts, may not be suitable for travel.

Despite a few setbacks, its top-notch quality design, adjustability, and comfort certainly make the Marcy Utility Slant Board w/ Headrest – Folding Design with Adjustable Positions SB-4606 stand out among ab workout products.

Marcy Utility Folding Slant Board with Headrest, Adjustable Positions, Black/Red, 29 x 18 x 59 inches

KESHWELL Home Gym Ab Machine with Adjustable Abdominal Cruncher, Resistance Bands & LCD Display – Suitable for Men & Women

KESHWELL Ab Machine,Abs Workout Equipment for Home Gym,Whole Body Workout Waist Trainer for WomenMen,Adjustable Abdominal Cruncher,Foldable Core Abs Exercise Machine with Resistance BandsLCD Display

The KESHWELL Ab Machine is an effective and efficient piece of workout equipment for home gym or even office settings – ideal for those who are looking to shed calories and work their abs, back, chest, thigh, glutes, and core muscles. This whole body workout trainer is not only designed for men but also acts as an amazing waist trainer for women.

There’s so much to appreciate about the KESHWELL Ab Machine. One of the reasons we love it is its ergonomic design – designed with a 120 degree angle and a curve sliding track which is not only more efficient, but more comfortable than those with vertical sliding tracks.

The KESHWELL Ab Machine serves to provide a whole-body workout, providing a variety of exercise modes including sliding abdominal crunch, separated sliding exercise, oblique abdominal crunch, single leg sliding, and leg extension. This versatility allows you to work out most major muscle groups with just one machine.

Key features include 4 adjustable workout intensity levels, stable design with 4 durable foot pads for safety, and a smart LCD display. Also, it’s upgraded with resistance bands for additional posture exercises. Additionally, it comes with a foldable design, making it perfect if you are short on space.

The construction of this product is impressive, it features sturdy, thickened steel frame, comfortable foam cushion and foam padded handgrips – broadening the sense of ease and convenience while exercising. It can hold up to 400 LBS, making it suitable for most people.

As with anything, the KESHWELL Ab Machine comes with its own pros and cons.

Some of the upsides include the 120-degree ergonomic angled design that not only makes exercise more efficient but also helps avoid injury. It boasts a smart LCD display that allows you to keep track of calories burnt, workout time, and exercise speed – prioritizing your workout trends and needs. Being compact and foldable, it can be stored easily after use without consuming much space.

One downside could be the need to manually adjust the workout intensity and height. However, the customization it provides can also be seen as a perk depending on personal preferences. Additionally, this workout machine does not include batteries, which means the smart LCD display must be powered separately.

Nevertheless, the KESHWELL Ab Machine stands out as one of the most effective and efficient tools to work your body and achieve the body shape you desire.

KESHWELL Home Gym Ab Machine with Adjustable Abdominal Cruncher, Resistance Bands  LCD Display - Suitable for Men  Women

Weighted Smart Hula Hoop for Adult Weight Loss and Abs Workout

Smart Hula Fit Hoop for Adult Weight Loss - Infinity Exercise Hoola Hoop - Weighted Hoolahoop for Women - Abs Workout Hoopfit

Using the Smart Hula Fit Hoop for Adult Weight Loss – Infinity Exercise Hoola Hoop truly transcends all ages and waist sizes. The exercise hoop is purposefully designed for Abs Workout, but it has been found to offer effective weight loss results, especially in the belly region.

This isn’t your run-of-the-mill fitness device. What makes this hoola hoop for women stand out is its adjustability—it consists of 24 detachable knots which can be effortlessly altered according to your waistline. This means people of all shapes and sizes—and up to waist sizes of 47 inches can use this hoola hoop for their workout.

The main objective of the Infinity Exercise Hoola Hoop – Weighted Hoolahoop for Women is to help shed those stubborn calories. With the specially crafted silicone gravity ball, users can burn up to 800 calories in just 30 minutes—judiciously making it a very effective method of weight-loss.

Moreover, the main components of this fitness gadget are the three-set, 360-degree, silent and shock-absorbing massage rollers that promote a smoother rotation and less noise. The use of these materials offers a comfortable and almost effortless exercise regime.

On the quality front, this Abs Workout Hoopfit surely triumphs over the competition. Prioritizing safety, the weighted hoola hoop’s outer layer is made of hard ABS plastic and soft silicone balls. They are loaded with finely grained iron sand material, which is completely sealed to avoid any leakage. The structural integrity of the hoola hoop guarantees users an exceptional durability and longevity, making it a fantastic fitness investment.

When it comes to the unique strengths, the customizable knots, the comfortable, yet effective weight loss design, and the resilient quality stand as the gigantic pros of this product.

The only con we could find, if we had to nitpick, would be the initial adjustment phase since the product is relatively advanced and innovative compared to the conventional hoola hoops.

Our Promise – At the end of the day, we want you to be completely pleased with your purchase. That’s why our product comes with a generous lifetime promise. If there is any hiccup with our hoola hoops, we’ll rush another one to your doorstep, free of charge.

Weighted Smart Hula Hoop for Adult Weight Loss and Abs Workout

EMS Smart Abs Stimulator and Abdominal Workout Equipment with 20 Gel Pads for Men and Women

Abs Stimulator - Ab Machine - Abs Workout Equipment - Perfect Work from Home Fitness- EMS Smart Fitness Ab Workout - Abs Stimulator Abdominal - Men and Women Ab Belt Trainer- 20 Gel Pads

The Abs Stimulator is explicitly designed to deliver targeted abdominal training. For those of us who yearn for a more toned and sculpted stomach, this product offers a way towards that end goal. By using this piece of equipment regularly, it provides a means to tone, tighten, and build strength in your core muscles.

There are several reasons why we’re very fond of the Abs Stimulator. At the top of the list is definitely its time efficiency. Achieving the same results as an hour of sit-ups, swimming, or a 2,000-meter run in just 15 minutes per session (for at least 6 weeks) is a game-changer. Imagine the convenience of fitting in a complete ab workout between busy schedules and hectic lifestyles. It’s like having a gym in your pocket!

The Abs Stimulator aims to equip users with a hassle-free and user-friendly fitness device that targets all major stomach muscles. With 19 intensity levels, each workout can be tailored to your personal fitness goals. The easy application of the 20 gel pads ensures a seamless process, almost like second nature after a few times.

The smart design of the Abs Stimulator, contoured to the human body, allows a broader and more effective reach on your abdominal muscles, hastening the sculpting process. We appreciate the comfort and convenience it offers, staying lightweight and ultra-thin for wearability and portability.

Upon the first use itself, we felt the tangible difference and how effective this product is. While the idea of abs workout equipment may not be everyone’s first choice, there are immediate advantages to packing such powerful technology into a compact device. Every detail from the intensity levels, the user-friendly operation, to the portable design, points towards a quality product, making getting a great ab workout less daunting and more achievable.

Just like any workout product, there are pros and cons to the Abs Stimulator.

  • Time and energy-efficient, complementing a busy lifestyle

  • Hassle-free operation with 19 adjustable intensity levels

  • Portable and easy to carry anywhere

  • Sculpts and tones all main abdominal muscles

  • Consistent usage required for significant results, a minimum of 6 weeks

  • Understanding the correct use of gel pads might take a few tries

We believe that the advantages of adding the Abs Stimulator to your fitness routine far outweigh any of its potential drawbacks. Trust us, your abdominals will thank you!

EMS Smart Abs Stimulator and Abdominal Workout Equipment with 20 Gel Pads for Men and Women

Standard Silver/Black CAP Barbell Ab Trainer

CAP Barbell Ab Trainer Silver/Black, Standard

The CAP Barbell Ab Trainer Silver/Black, Standard is more than just a workout tool – it’s a game changer in the realm of home fitness equipment. This product is designed with an aim to tone and sculpt your core muscles. Fitted with a cushioned headrest, it provides the perfect support when you’re doing crunches, eliminating the risk of back and neck strain that’s often the downside of such exercises. It turns an otherwise daunting task into a comfortable home workout experience.

We are particularly drawn to the CAP Barbell Ab Trainer for a variety of reasons. Firstly, its ergonomic design and sturdy steel construction ensure durability and steadiness. The device is made to last and provide reliability during your workouts. Secondly, it offers a tremendous level of convenience. Its easy assembly enables you to quickly set it up and get started with your workout in no time. And with a weight of 6.50 pounds, it’s easy to move around yet stable enough to endure intense sessions. Finally, it comes with a limited 30-day manufacturer’s warranty, which gives us peace of mind about our investment.

The primary goal of this Ab Trainer is to simplify your home workouts and provide more effective results. It has been designed to minimize strain on your back and neck during crunches. The cushioned headrest helps you to maintain correct posture and provides essential support. With its sturdy steel construction, you can put your entire weight on it without the fear of it collapsing.

In terms of quality, this Ab trainer truly stands out. The steel construction speaks volumes about its hardiness, while the ergonomic design ensures perfect alignment of your body during workouts, making it less likely for you to sustain injuries. Also, you can assemble it in minutes, without needing the assistance of a professional, making it a very user-friendly piece of equipment.

The advantages of the CAP Barbell Ab Trainer are many. From its sturdy, ergonomic construction to the easy assembly, and the inclusion of a cushioned headrest for support, it ticks all the boxes. It also comes with a limited 30-day manufacturer’s warranty, affirming the confidence of the makers in their product.

On the downside, the 30-day warranty could have been more extended, considering the general wear and tear of exercise equipment. However, its solid construction provides assurance of its lifespan and durability, thereby outweighing this minor drawback. The CAP Barbell Ab Trainer is undoubtedly a valuable addition to your home workout gear.

Standard Silver/Black CAP Barbell Ab Trainer

Abs Workout Original Podcast Recording

Podcast – Original recording" href="" style='text-decoration: none; box-shadow: none;'>Abs Workout                                                                      Podcast                                     – Original recording

Abs Workout Original Recording Podcast is a unique workout tool designed for those who are looking for ways to improve their fitness routine and focus on core strength. Instead of being a physical product like many others on the market, this innovative resource is purely audio. You tune in, listen, follow along, and start sculpting your abs in the comfort of your home, at the park, or wherever you choose to break a sweat.

We fell in love with this product for its novelty, convenience, and effectiveness. The Abs Workout Podcast is ideal for individuals with busy lifestyles who are searching for convenient ways to exercise. The fact that you can use it anywhere, anytime, without the need for physical equipment, is a big plus! Moreover, each episode is led by fitness experts who guide you through each workout move-by-move, making it suitable for beginners and fitness enthusiasts alike.

The Abs Workout Podcast aims to provide an easy, effective way for users to target their core muscles and improve overall fitness. It delivers easy-to-follow audio instructions for various ab workouts, removing guesswork and providing a personal-trainer-like experience.

Some of the key features of this podcast include:

Clear, precise verbal cues to guide you through every workout, ensuring you’re performing the movements correctly and getting the most out of each session.

Whether you’re a beginner, intermediate, or advanced fitness enthusiast, there’s always a diversity of routines available to fit your needs.

Each episode also includes expert tips about nutrition, importance of warm-up and cool-down exercises, and motivational speeches, adding bonus value to your fitness journey.

The production quality of the Abs Workout Podcast is excellent. Clear audio, engaging scripts, and expert commentary create an energetic atmosphere that makes you look forward to your workout sessions. The guidance is motivating and professional, guaranteeing you an efficient and enjoyable ab workout.


No need for gym membership or physical equipment. All you need is your body, some space, and the podcast playing on your device.

From exercise procedures to fitness advice, the podcast provides comprehensive insight into achieving a toned mid-section.


For beginners, it could be challenging to follow some exercises correctly based purely on audio instructions.

Laslty, remember that the journey to toned abs needs consistent effort and proper nutrition too. But with the Abs Workout Podcast, you can surely amp up your fitness game!

Abs Workout Original Podcast Recording

2023 New Automatic Rebound Ab Wheel Kit with Elbow Support, Timer, and Core Workout Equipment in Green

2023 New Automatic Rebound Abdominal Wheel Kit with Elbow Support and Timer, Auto Rebound Ab Roller Wheel, Ab Wheel Roller for Core Workout, Abb Rollers Abs Exercise Equipment (Green)

The 2023 New Automatic Rebound Abdominal Wheel Kit is tailored towards optimizing core workouts, targeting your abdominal muscles for maximum strengthening and tightening. Its versatile design lets you customize your workout routine to better enhance your physical performance and endurance, toning your body to perfection.

The thing that drew us to this product is its automatic rebound feature. This is not just an ab roller, but a complete abdominal workout kit that brings new innovative features to the traditional ab workout equipment. The 330 pounds weight limit makes it a great choice for a wide range of people with varying weights.

The rebound device adds a unique twist to the standard abdominal wheel. It brakes and provides a rebound boost when the wheel is pushed to the limit position. This not only offers an added layer of safety but also prevents muscle overstretching.

Coupled with the elbow support, it takes the strain off your wrist, allowing you to use your upper body's full strength. The ergonomic handle and the six-ply silent wheel ensure a smooth, hassle-free workout experience. Plus, the built-in timer and phone holder are thoughtful additions to boost your performance by monitoring your progress and setting realistic goals.

The 4.5-inch wide wheels further take the functionality up a notch. Their six-ply design guarantees balance and stability, reducing wheel wobble to let you focus on your workout.

Rest assured, the 2023 New Automatic Rebound Abdominal Wheel Kit exhibits reliable quality, engineered to withstand even the toughest workout sessions. Its compact design makes it a handy companion you can take anywhere - be it home, office, or gym.

While the product impresses with its automatic rebound feature, elbow support, and wide wheels, we should also consider possible downsides. Here's a quick rundown:

  • Automatic rebound feature for safety and preventing muscle overstretching

  • Elbow support relieves wrist strain

  • Timer and phone holder to monitor progress and set goals

  • Wide and silent wheels for balanced and quiet workouts

  • Some beginners may find it challenging to master the proper technique initially

  • Requires dedication and consistency to see the desired results.

Regardless of a few minor drawbacks, the 2023 New Automatic Rebound Abdominal Wheel Kit stands out as a versatile and practical fitness tool that revolutionizes abdominal workouts.

2023 New Automatic Rebound Ab Wheel Kit with Elbow Support, Timer, and Core Workout Equipment in Green

Dmiloe Adult Workout Equipment - Punching Bag and Sit Up Exercise Combo for Home and Office Use

Dmiloe Abs Workout Equipment Punching Bag for Adults – Innovative Sit Up Exercise Equipment for Crunches – Speed Punching Bag Crunches Punch Bag for Home Workout, Office

The Dmiloe Abs Workout Equipment Punching Bag for adults is an exciting piece of exercise equipment that focuses on transforming your boring crunch routine into an exhilarating, effective workout. Its main purpose is to enhance your ab workouts by incorporating the fun and intensity of a punching bag into the mix. Perfect for those who want to spice up their routines and achieve advanced results in ab sculpting.

We love the Dmiloe Abs Workout Equipment Punching Bag because it brings much-needed change and enjoyment into our workouts. The combination of a punch bag with the ab exercise allows us to engage our body and mind simultaneously. Its portability and easy disassembly make it a desirable product for those who like to work out on the go or even at the office.

The Dmiloe Abs Punching Bag is a unique device designed to maximize your performance in core exercises, specifically crunches. This exercise machine does not require a partner or spotter, offering the option of completing your workout independently. One of the standout features of this product is its compatibility with solo workouts which makes the Dmiloe Ab Equipment a perfect choice for home and individual workout sessions. Another wonderful aspect is its portability; this machine can easily be disassembled and carried away to serve your workout needs in offices, hotels, and at home.

The quality of the Dmiloe Abs Workout Bag is impressive. It is made with durable materials that can withstand frequent and intense use. The easily attachable and detachable parts make the equipment easy to assemble and disassemble in a couple of seconds. This adds to the simplicity and convenience of usage. The product offers a fun and fully engaged training routine, which is always a plus when it comes to workout gear.

The pros of using the innovative Dmiloe Abs Workout Equipment Punching Bag are many. First, it offers a unique twist to the classic crunch, allowing for proper knee alignment, enhanced performance, and an unbeatable mind-body engagement. Second, it's brilliant for individual use and can be carried around with ease. On the flip side, if you are not into boxing or punch workouts, this may not be the best-suited ab machine for you. It may also require a little time to get used to the new workout style as it deviates from the traditional ab exercises.

Dmiloe Adult Workout Equipment - Punching Bag and Sit Up Exercise Combo for Home and Office Use

Comparison Section

In our review of the eight products, we discovered each has unique features that make them attractive for people looking to boost their fitness regimes. Let's dive into the specifications of each product and how they compare.

Marcy Utility Slant Board w/ Headrest

This product boasts a heavy-duty steel tube frame with water-resistant powder-coated finishing. It offers multiple uses from its four-angled positions that ensure flexibility for various fitness routines. The longer and wider backrest ensures increased comfort and balance during exercises.


The Keshwell Ab Machine boasts an ergonomic design and has various exercise modes, and it is suitable for personal home use or the office. Moreover, the 4-adjustable workout intensity guarantees a high comfort level, and the upgraded machine now comes with resistance bands for all-round workout postures.

Smart Hula Fit Hoop for Adult Weight Loss

The Hula Fit Hoop is a user-friendly fitness tool with customized sizing that fits all sizes. This comfortable-to-use hula hoop guarantees effective calorie burning. The product is covered by a lifetime promise of replacement in case of any problems.

Abs Stimulator

If you need specialized abdominal training, the Abs Stimulator is the tool to consider. It offers a time-efficient way to achieve results, with only 15-minute sessions daily. It is also user-friendly, lightweight, and portable for convenience, ensuring you can pack your workouts wherever you go.

CAP Barbell Ab Trainer Silver/Black, Standard

This easy-to-assemble crunch tool from CAP helps to tone and sculpt your core muscles with reduced strain. It's designed for stability, durability, and support, proving a worthy tool in any home gym equipment arsenal.

2023 New Automatic Rebound Abdominal Wheel Kit

For fans of rebound abdominal wheel kit, we recommend this 2023 model. It comes with elbow support and a scientific design that reduces strain and offers comfort. Also, the kit is very silent, operates smoothly, and is perfect for use at home or office.

Dmiloe Abs Workout Equipment Punching Bag for Adults

Dmiloe's exercise bag is the best fit for all gym enthusiasts who want a fun workout. It is portable and functional for independent exercises. Its robust structure ensures it can withstand rigorous workouts while the design helps users enhance their techniques.

Product Notable Features
Marcy Utility Slant Board w/ Headrest Heavy-duty design, Four-angled positions, Foldable
KESHWELL Ab Machine Ergonomic design, Adjustable workout intensity, Resistance Bands
Smart Hula Fit Hoop for Adult Weight Loss Adjustable to size, Calorie Burning, Silent Operation
Abs Stimulator Target Abdominal, User-friendly, Portable
CAP Barbell Ab Trainer Silver/Black, Standard Ergonomic design, Easy to assemble, Durable
2023 New Automatic Rebound Abdominal Wheel Kit Automatic, Elbow Support, Includes Timer
Dmiloe Abs Workout Equipment Punching Bag for Adults Portable, For Independent Use, High Performance

Review Summary

After testing and assessing these eight products, we obtained a comprehensive understanding of what they have to offer.

Marcy Utility Slant Board w/ Headrest

This Marcy Utility Slant Board stood out for its adjustable positions and folding design. We love the added headrest for comfort although we did find setup initially a bit challenging. If you have ample space at home and prefer manual workouts, this product is definitely recommended.


The KESHWELL Ab Machine was a clear winner in offering full-body workouts. The adjustable and foldable features make it another excellent choice for home workouts. Its LCD display and resistance bands are plus points. However, we suggest this for more advanced fitness enthusiasts as beginners might find the adjustments slightly complex.

Smart Hula Fit Hoop for Adult Weight Loss

For engaging and unconventional abs workout, the Smart Hula Fit Hoop was delightful. This product is best suited for weight-loss and toning sessions. A drawback though is that it might take some time to get used to the weighted hoop.

Abs Stimulator

The Abs Stimulator is hands-down our recommended work-from-home fitness tool. While its simplicity is appreciated, some of us struggled with the gel pads, so those with sensitive skin, be cautious!

CAP Barbell Ab Trainer Silver/Black

This standard CAP Barbell Ab Trainer is a reliable choice for dedicated ab workout sessions. It could be too basic for some, but it's a solid pick for those seeking simplicity and reliability in their training regime.

Abs Workout Podcast – Original recording

This original Abs Workout Podcast pleasantly surprised us with its convenient session format. It might not be the regular 'equipment,' but it's great for those always on the go or seeking a well-rounded guidance.

2023 New Automatic Rebound Abdominal Wheel Kit

The 2023 New Automatic Rebound Abdominal Wheel Kit, with its timer and elbow support, adds a refreshing upgrade to traditional ab rollers. It could be slightly bulky to handle, but it's unquestionably effective for core strengthening.

Dmiloe Abs Workout Equipment Punching Bag for Adults

The Dmiloe Abs Workout Equipment's unique combination of a punching bag and sit-up exercise gear left a lasting impression. Who would've thought crunches and boxing could mesh so well! However, ensure you have enough space at home for this unit.


In conclusion, our top choice for a full-body workout is the KESHWELL Ab Machine. However, for those seeking a more exciting, unconventional routine, the Smart Hula Fit Hoop and Dmiloe Abs Workout Equipment Punching Bag are unbeatable. Finally, for the simple and reliable workout, we recommend using the CAP Barbell Ab Trainer in combination with the Abs Workout Podcast for comprehensive guidance.

In the end, it's all about choosing according to your preferences, available space, and fitness level. Each of the reviewed products has its unique features and, with dedication, can contribute to your fitness journey.

Disclosure: As an Amazon Associate, I earn from qualifying purchases.

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